Anders Breivik - Gladio Copycat?

12th June 2012

The Anders Breivik trial is revolving around questions of the psychiatric evaluations carried out on the accused, though it is expected to become a lot more political when Breivik's defence witnesses take the stand.  He has selected several political experts to try to rationalise his defence that his actions in killing 77 people in Oslo and on the island of Utoya last July were politically necessary. 

In conversations with Brit Dee and Henrik Palmgren, two independent media producers who like me are continuing to explore and investigate this case, we have discussed whether the massacre in Norway was part of a strategy of tension.  Certainly the impact the attacks have had is one of fragmenting the European political spectrum, exacerbating the divide between Left and Right, and in contributing to a sense of fear about a perpetual threat from terrorism.  Recent shooting sprees in France by Mohammed Merah between 11/3/12 and 22/3/12, and the Liege attack by Nordine Amrani on 13/12/11 have also contributed to this broad sense of constant violence. 

Merah was shot dead, Amrani killed himself, but Breivik was taken alive and like David Headley is now being given a judicial and media platform to spread his immoral and bizarrely selective worldview.  Merah was quite probably an intelligence asset, and was certainly known to multiple security services prior to his killing spree.  Amrani was convicted of firearms and drugs offences, but was granted early release in 2010.  There were widespread reports suggesting that the Liege shootings were carried out by a team of which Amrani was only one member. 

As such we are presented with the possibility that there is an international conspiracy both within certain state agencies but also existing beyond them, in the manner of the stay-behind units of Gladio, that are to some extent responsible for these massacres.  While Merah and Amrani fit a model of patsies, largely because they are both dead and therefore the authorities can say what they like about them, this isn't the case with Breivik.  He is alive and well and apparently enjoying his trial enormously. 

As yet, no specific connection has been found between Breivik and any latent or adapted version of the Gladio network.  However, we should recall that even in Italy, where the exposure of Gladio has been most successful, many cases remain unsolved and those that have been correctly solved often took more than a decade to get to that point.  We are coming up to the 7th anniversary of 7/7 and while the official version is in tatters we do not as yet have viable alternative culprits. 

Nonetheless, there are hints all through Breivik's manifesto and elsewhere that he knew about Gladio and saw himself as a Right-wing extremist in the tradition of the Westland New Post and Ordine Nuovo.  He also praised the right wing nationalistic Hindutva radicals, who are widely suspected to be the dirty war arm of the Indian security services. 

Breivik also mentions the Ergenekon network in Turkey, connected to the false flag terrorist coup plot known as Sledgehammer, which has so far seen nearly 1000 military officials arrested and dozens put on trial.  Indeed, his gigantic manifesto includes a case study of Ergenekon which you can download here (PDF, 1.43MB). 

Breivik comments that:

Major general Unluturk told Mutercimler that Ergenekon was originally founded with the support of the CIA and the Pentagon (probably right as it was an-anti Communist network established in the beginning of the cold war).

Clearly Breivik knew about Gladio. Indeed, he briefly mentioned it by name in a timeline on the history of Turkey, saying:

In 1969, Alparslan Turkes, a member of the Turkish branch of NATOs stay-behind army, known as Gladio, founded the right wing Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), whose youth organisations became known as the Grey Wolves (Fascists).

Elsewhere in his Ergenekon case study, Breivik also noted the comparison with Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish branch of Gladio.  We can be certain that Breivik at least knew about this part of history, though exactly how he fitted it into his worldview is difficult to understand.  After all, if, as Breivik believes, the whole of Europe has been systematically taken over by Marxist multiculturalists then why were the military and intelligence agencies running anti-Marxist terrorist gangs? 

Indeed, this is not just a question for Breivik, but for many who share his views or hold similar views.  If Marxism, or its more common popularisation 'Socialism', is the political philosophy of the grand international conspiracy that is allegedly controlling the whole of Western society then why have the CIA and its sister agencies put so much effort into destroying Marxist and similarly statist Left-wing movements across five continents?  From the secret war in Laos to the overthrow of Nkrumah in Ghana, Arbenz in Guatemala, Mossadeq in Iran to Operation Gladio in Italy, there is a distinct pattern whereby democratic Marxist movements are simply not tolerated by the covert powers.  By contrast, the sort of racist, nationalistic movements to which Breivik claims to belong are, if anything, encouraged as part of this anti-Marxist strategy.

Indeed, Breivik himself drew attention to this in the midst of his shooting spree on Utoya.  As has been widely reported, he called the police several times during his rampage, including asking to speak to Delta, the armed police.  He also introduced himselfwhen he first called, saying, 'Yes, hello, my name is Commander Anders Behring Breivik from the Norwegian anti-communist resistance movement.'

The Norwegian anti-Communist resistance movement?  Norway has no anti-Communist resistance movement, or at least not that we know about.  It's only historical movement was the NATO secret army, known locally as ROC.  Indeed, in Daniele Ganser's book NATO's Secret Armies, which you can download here (PDF 2.87MB), he devotes a whole chapter to The Secret War in Norway.  Unlike in Italy, Belgium, Turkey and other countries, it appears that the Norwegian stay-behind remained as a stay-behind army, and never became a pro-active tool for a strategy of tension.

Until now, perhaps.  The stay-behind armies made significant use of weapons caches, and the same ideas can be found in Special Forces training doctrine to this day.  A significant recent example is in US Army Training Circular 18-10 (TC 18-10) on Unconventional Warfare, which you can read about and/or download via NSNBC.  The very same principles can also be found in Breivik's manifesto, and though it is clear he has lifted some of these notions from the US FM (Field Manual) series he does not footnote them as he does his other sources.  In this respect, the Breivik Manifesto is exactly the same as the Al Qaeda manual, which was of course written by a triple agent named Ali Mohamed. 

Indeed, Breivik barely mentions the security services and covert operations in his manifesto, despite it running to 1500 pages.  MI5 and MI6 are only referred to in passing, and though he directly references the CIA he never seems to reflect on how their influence on the world fits in with his own politics.  Breivik has been very brazen about his connections to the freemasons, and boastful of his membership in a Knights Templar organisation that may or may not actually exist, and yet aside from that first phone call from Utoya he has never said anything that implies a connection to the security services. 

What sense are we to make of this?  Breivik appears to identify with a series of Right-wing terrorist gangs and movements, many of which are actually tied to the intelligence agencies of different NATO countries.  Likewise he identifies with Ergenekon, who appear to be a covert policy arm of a faction of the Turkish military, and the Hindutva radicals, who appear to be a covert militant arm of the Indian government.  Breivik is clearly aware of at least some of these connections, but downplays them in his manifesto and shows no sign of reflection on their implications for his own view of the world, immigration, Marxism and nationalism. 

The simplest explanation is that Breivik is engaging in a cover-up, perfectly happy to take the credit for the attacks regardless of whether he did them, or whether he acted alone.  Set against this are his constant claims of a wider network, a Knights Templar or similar organisation with other 'one man cells' waiting for the right moment.  This tension is not easily resolved. 

Another possibility is that Breivik is a copycat terrorist, who saw the actions of terrorists in the Brabant massacres in Belgium, the civil war in Italy and elsewhere and became inspired by these apparently nationalistic acts of violence and hence committed his own.  This would explain the fleeting references to Gladio and associated operations and organisations in his manifesto, his phone call to the police during his shooting spree, and to some extent why he is now either fabricating a wider network or mocking the authorities for their failure to find a real wider network. 

Of course, being a copycat does not rule out the possibility of provocateurs either within the state or beyond it.  If in fact Breivik was in touch with others posing as Right-wing radicals who encouraged him to commit these acts of violence, promising Breivik that they would follow in his footsteps, and now the authorities cannot find any trace of these additional people then one explanation is that they were agents provocateurs for the security services.  At this stage, with the very limited evidence available, this is only a hypothesis, but its explanatory capacity is considerable.  As such, it may well turn out to be the truth behind all the smoke and mirrors of this case. 

Related articles:

Anders Breivik - A conversation with Brit Dee and Henrik Palmgren

22/7: A Strategy of Tension? - A conversation with Brit Dee

The Breivik - Headley Connections

Sledgehammer under the Microscope

The Prototype